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Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Viral Hepatitis in New York City

  1. Fabienne Laraque1
  1. 1New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Queens, NY, 11101 USA
  2. 2CDC/CSTE Applied Epidemiology Fellowship, Atlanta, GA, 30341, USA
  3. 3New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12237 USA
  1. Corresponding author contact information: Fabienne Laraque, Medical Director, Viral Hepatitis Program, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 42-09 28th Street, CN-22A WS 5-70, Queens, NY 11101; Phone: 347-396-7415; Email: flaraque{at}; alternative email: flaraque28{at}
  1. Alternate corresponding author: Miranda S. Moore, Hepatitis Epidemiologist, Viral Hepatitis Program, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 42-09 28th Street, CN-22A WS 6-07, Queens, NY 11101; Phone: 347-396-2791; Email: mmoore3{at}

  2. * Miranda Moore and Elena Ivanina contributed equally to this manuscript


Background. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence and mortality are increasing in the United States. Viral hepatitis infection is a primary risk factor for HCC. This study describes the relationship between viral hepatitis and HCC in New York City (NYC).

Methods. Viral hepatitis cases reported to the NYC Department of Health from 1999–2012 were matched to HCC cases diagnosed from 2001–2012 and reported to the New York State Cancer Registry. HCC cases were stratified by presence or absence of viral hepatitis. Demographic characteristics, factors associated with specific causes of death, and survival time were analyzed for all HCC cases.

Results. From 2001–2012, 8,827 NYC residents were diagnosed with HCC; 38.4% had hepatitis C (HCV) infection, 17.9% had hepatitis B (HBV) infection, and 2.2% had both infections. HCC patients were predominantly men (74.8%) and equally white non-Hispanic (28.6%) and Hispanic (28.9%). Those with HBV were primarily Asian/Pacific Islander (63.2%). The median survival time after HCC diagnosis for persons with HBV infection was 22.3 months, compared with 13.1 months for persons with HCV, and 6.9 months for non-infected persons. The five-year survival rate was 37.5% for those with HBV, 20.0% for those with HCV, 29.5% among coinfected individuals, and 16.1% for those with neither infection reported.

Conclusion. In NYC, most persons with HCC have viral hepatitis; the majority of viral hepatitis infections are due to HCV. Survival for persons with HCC differs widely by viral hepatitis status. This study highlights the importance of viral hepatitis prevention and treatment and HCC screening.


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